Linux tutorials, system administration, web hosting, programming
The exiftool command allows you to read or write metadata from various file formats from a command line, which can be particularly useful when you need to process a large amount of files automatically. In this tutorial we will look at some common usage examples and try a complete automation shell script that will copy the IPTC data of JPG files into EPS files.
Our Debian 8 (Jesssie) based server may slip log entries that are not recognized by the Fail2Ban filters on version 0.8.13, even when using Fail2Ban, so our system is less protected against the attacks that cause these entries. In this tutorial, we will work on blocking attempts at random usernames accessing our SSH server using a new filter pattern from Fail2Ban.
When operating web pages, the size of the databases may reach our free space on the partition, or we may just migrate our databases to a SSD drive for performance optimization purposes only. Whatever your reason for doing this, this tutorial will tell you how to migrate database binary data files to another partition or another drive.
If you run many services on our server, comprehensive and systematic scanning of our log files becomes difficult. A useful solution is the logrotate command, which automatically rotates log files generated by different programs, compresses older ones, deletes older ones than specified, and provides the ability to send email notifications. With the program, you no longer have to worry about logging in after a few days or weeks of absence, as they are waiting in an orderly state to look through them. In this tutorial you will learn about the common use of Logrotate.
Debian 2019. March 20 moved all Debian 7 (Wheezy) libraries and Debian 8 (Jessie) non-LTS libraries to archive.debian.org. Archiving for Debian 8 (Jesssie) affects the jessie-updates and jessie-backports libraries, so they are no longer available in the Debian main repository but only in the archive, and they no longer have security updates. In this tutorial we will look at how to configure the APT package manager repositories to keep your Debian 8 (Jessie) system running smoothly.
Mod_php, the default way to run PHP, is outdated and has more modern and secure solutions. In this tutorial, we will install and configure the PHP-FPM (PHP FastCGI Process Manager) server API on an existing Debian 8 (Jessie) + Apache-based LAMP server. On this page, after installing PHP-FPM, we make the PHP process manager live with a simple global configuration.
Programming often requires the use of arrays to store multiple values at once, which can then be processed automatically in cycles. The same is not the case with Shell scripts. In this four-page tutorial we look at several examples of how to use array variables in different situations in our Shell scripts. This page describes how to create indexed arrays, load and read data into arrays, and learn how to use indexed arrays in cycles.